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Nov 23, 2016

Chemical Imbalances and Mental Ill-health

Written by Dr. Caroline Leaf

Today, it has become commonplace to say that people have chemical imbalances in their brain, most notably a disruption in the proper production of dopamine (for “diseases” like ADHD) and serotonin (for “diseases” like depression) [1]. These people, it is supposed, need drugs to “cure” these chemical imbalances, hence the terms “antipsychotics” or “antidepressants” [2].

However, in the first part of the 20th century drugs dealing with issues of the mind (as opposed to the rest of the body) were predominantly viewed as “mind-altering substances” like alcohol, and classified as sedatives or stimulants that tranquilized symptoms or the manifestations of psychosis [3]. When the first modern neuroleptic, Thorazine (Chlorpromazine), was introduced in the 1950s, the French researchers Pierre Deniker and Jean Delay noted that the drug created a state of mind similar to Parkinson’s disease, introducing a “new neurological syndrome” in the patient [4]. Essentially, these drugs created, not treated, chemical imbalances [5].

During the 1950s and 1960s a new view of these mind-altering drugs began to shape the world of mental health [6]. Despite the lack of a conclusive body of scientific evidence these drugs came to be seen as “cures”, targeting the underlying biological mechanism of the “disease” of depression or psychosis [7]. It was just assumed that since these drugs affected brain chemistry in a certain way, the opposite reaction must be the result of the disease, notwithstanding the fact that this has never been adequately proven [8]. People no longer spoke of the mind-altering effects of these psychoactive drugs, and, as psychiatrist and professor at University College London Joanna Moncrieff notes, today it is incredibly difficult to find or publish journal articles on these effects, compelling professionals and researchers to look at patient websites such as askapatient.com (which currently number close to a million) [9].

If the overly simplistic explanation of chemical imbalances in the brain is an insufficient explanation for mental illness, why did many people come to see these drugs as “cures”? And why do people still see these dugs as correcting an underlying chemical imbalance? There are a number of social and political factors involved in the rise of this infamous theory (remember: medicine does not occur in a historical vacuum). First, in the second part of the 20th century psychiatry was under heavy criticism [10]. To justify and defend the profession, psychiatrists promoted a medical/disease model of mental health, which is most notably seen at the time in the publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual III, which marked a definitive shift away from psychoanalysis and talk therapy [11]. By creating lists of disorders (again, based off no conclusive scientific evidence on the possible biological mechanisms underlying these so-called disorders), which appeared to be simple, objective ways of recognizing mental illness (somewhat like identifying a tumor), psychiatry created a self-made marketing weapon against its attackers [12]. From now on, institutions like the American Psychiatric Association and the DSM would define what is normal, in turn telling us what it means to suffer and, essentially, what it means to be human [13]. They medicalized misery, and today millions are suffering because of their actions, creating a public health disaster [14].

In fact, since it was now widely, yet incorrectly, assumed that these drugs were “curing” the supposed “disease” and not just tranquilizing the disturbed individual, forced drug treatments, institutionalization and lack of consent merely became “cures” [15]. The responsibility and guilt of the medical processionals behind these so-called treatments were essentially sidelined [16]. Today a psychiatrist can be praised for drugging a depressed person with mind-altering substances and, if these do not work, institutionalizing them and shocking their brain with ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) [17]. It is even an acceptable and commonplace practice to imprison mentally ill persons, drug them and lock them in solitary confinement, compelling them to live their days marinating in their own excrement [18]. It is therefore no surprise that mental health advocate, psychiatrist, former director of the DSM and professor at Duke University Allen Frances declares that “there has never been a worse time or a worse place to have a mental illness than in the US today” [19].

Unfortunately, the pharmaceutical companies, like the psychiatrists, also realized just how effective a marketing tool the chemical imbalance theory could be [20]. Despite the recognition amongst many psychiatrists and medical health professionals that the chemical imbalance theory is not valid [21], drug companies like Eli Lilly still claim that “antipsychotic medicines are believed to work by balancing the chemical found naturally in the brain” [22]. In fact, their marketing efforts, predominantly to doctors through prescription privileges, have been so successful that it is estimated that 80% of the American public alone believe in chemical imbalances in the brain [23]. These companies would not spend billions of dollars on marketing campaigns if they did not think they would work.

Additionally, a number of materialistic and reductionistic cultural assumptions have supported these developments. First, we tend to see science and allopathic medicine as the source of all truth [24]. The doctor in his white coat is the priest of a secular age, and evidence-based clinical medicine is the bible [25]. So, if the doctor says that these drugs are safe and will cure chemical imbalances in the brain, even though many of them get most of their information from the drug company representatives who offer multiple benefits for prescribing particular medications, we believe wholeheartedly in what he or she may say and are more inclined to believe the medication will work for us [26]. These beliefs, which ignore actual scientific results, are buttressed by a flood of distorted and biased news reports, press releases and scientific journal articles on supposed chemical imbalances, and have transformed the theory into cultural dogma [27]. So, obviously, if we experience negative side effects and do not feel the drug is working, it must be something wrong with us, not the drug [28].

The situation is critical. Since primary care doctors/family physicians, not qualified psychiatric professionals, prescribe most of these mind-altering drugs, we do not ask ourselves if these doctors really understand all the implications of using these substances [29]. Not even the psychiatrists understand these drugs [30]! But for many of us a doctor is a doctor: we don’t ask ourselves if the allure of money, based off biased information, may blind the him/her to the reality of the pill [31]. It is perhaps the lure of a quick fix, a magic bullet solution to our problems, that obscures our judgment. And, sometimes, it is far easier to take a pill than to take responsibility [32]. True change is a difficult and lengthy process. Anyway, the doctor is the professional right? He studied for years correct? Who am I, but an ordinary person? You may have not studied for years, but you still have the right to ask these questions, as you will be the one taking the drug and dealing with its side effects. You have every right to determine the potential biases and interests of your doctor, asking them if their use of the psychoactive substance in question is based on the free lunches and monetary gifts of a drug company representative [33]. It is your brain, your body, your life. These drugs can directly affect your health, with side effects such as an increased risk of suicide [34], loss of sexual ability [35], potential brain shrinkage [36], agitation [37], insomnia [38], weight gain and obesity-related diseases like diabetes [39], lethargy [40], mental fog [41], emotional apathy [42], homicide [43], to name just a few, and taking them can turn into a matter of life and death, particularly for the elderly and children [44].

Of course, you may argue that these substances have helped you stabilize your life, thereby allowing you to sort out your problems. Yet there are several considerations to take into account. Most people will feel better after seeing a doctor, whether or not they are given medication at all—doctor visits can have a powerful placebo effect, particularly if the doctor is very friendly and compassionate [45]. Moreover, we tend to visit medical professionals when we feel we just cannot cope any longer—when we are at a breaking point [46]. Due to spontaneous healing, many people will begin feel better after this peak in their illness/issue, whether they do or do not do anything to alleviate it, and the same is true for depression and anxiety, while the "spell-binding effects" of the medication limits our ability to judge the true effects of the drug [47]. In fact, most people recover from depression without drug treatments [48]. And, as Irving Kirsh, professor at a number of universities and lecturer at Harvard Medical School, has shown, antidepressants are no better than placebos in terms of clinical significance, but, unlike placebos, come with a host of negative side effects in the short and long term [49]. Lastly, we have to take into account that many things can make us feel better, including alcohol, yet we do not say that alcohol fixed “a previous brain deficiency of alcohol” [50]. So why do we think of anti-depressants and other psychiatric drugs in this way?

Even if you feel that these psychoactive substances do help you, they are not correcting an underlying chemical imbalance in your brain, and potentially creating neurological imbalances that were not there to begin with [51]. These drugs start changing your neurochemistry within the first dose [52]. We then have to take into consideration some very hard questions. Substances like marijuana and speed also make people feel better, but do not fix the root of the issue: why someone felt the way he/she did in the first place. Indeed, more people die from overdoses of psychiatric drugs than illicit drugs like cocaine and heroin [53]. So, if it is okay to take psychoactive substances like antipsychotics and antidepressants because they make us feel better even though they can be dangerous, is it okay to take other, non-legal drugs because they make us feel better as well, even though they can be dangerous? It is in fact easier to withdraw from heroin than antidepressants (SSRIs, that is selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors) [55]. And what about the hundreds of thousands of people suffering under the burden of our pseudoscientific bio-centric model of psychiatry [56], people like those prisoners locked in solitary confinement or those individuals forced to take these drugs and institutionalized [57], who have no voice? They too deserve to be heard.

Indeed, we have every right to question not only our doctors but also the cultural power of neo-liberal capitalism [58]. As the rich get richer and the poor get poorer, these drugs play a particularly important role in social control, as the philosopher Michel Foucault pointed out [59]. By emphasizing that the problem lies within an individual’s biology, we are less inclined to look at their experiences and the social context of why they are feeling the way they feel [60]. We look at the mythical chemical imbalance instead of economic exploitation, violence and inept political structures [61]. Children in foster care are told that they have malfunctioning brains and given these mind-altering substances, and the terrible, abusive and shocking circumstances that they have experienced are put in a mental corner [62]. The child who moves a lot in class is forced to take mind-altering medication that is as addictive as cocaine in the long run, and we do not question whether the school systems we have in place are adequate for the diverse expression of humanity [63]. Once again, the quick fix mentality comes into play: it is far easier to give people a drug that makes them indifferent to their socio-economic circumstances rather than fighting for social justice and changing those circumstances. Certainly, these drugs are also useful tools for neutralizing anyone who does not fit neatly into the neo-liberal capitalist framework--those people that make us uncomfortable and fearful—within and without the Church [64].

When we are faced with such a harsh reality, we must always remember that God has given us powerful minds, which can change the structure of our brains [65]. Our souls are not locked in a cage by our biology [66]. We have, after all, the mind of Christ; we are dignified beings; we are more than conquerors through Him (1 Corinthians 2:16; Romans 8:37). Although Jesus never said we wouldn’t suffer, that we wouldn’t feel pain and anguish, His death and resurrection enables us to have joy despite our circumstances (Philippians 4:11-13). Indeed, not only are pain and human suffering are a part of the world today, but also a clarion call for us as the children of God to go out and be the light in dark places (Romans 8) [67]. If we stop sharing in the pain, as God shares our pain, how can we ever challenge injustice? We, with our sound minds, together as the Church, can choose to overcome with the help of the Holy Spirit, and in turn impact our communities, our cities, our countries and our world.

In the end, we will all be compelled to choose between the worldview presented by the modern psychiatry, a corrupted institution which claims that suffering is not normal and that those that cannot cope without medication have broken, defective brains, or the promises made in God’s word that He never gives us more than we can handle, that He has given us sound minds, that He is always with us, and that nothing can separate us from His love (1 Corinthians 10:13; 2 Timothy 1:7; Joshua 1:9; Romans 8:35-39).

**This is informative and NOT individual medical advice.

**DRUG WITHDRAWAL should ALWAYS be done under the supervision of a qualified professional. These drugs alter your brain chemistry, and withdrawal can be a difficult process. There are thousands of patient-run sites on withdrawal from psychoactive substances on the Internet, and many books available in stores and online. We suggest you begin looking at the resources page on Mad in America: http://www.madinamerica.com/resources/#drug_tapering. Dr. Peter Breggin also has a brilliant book on withdrawal: Psychiatric Drug Withdrawal A Guide for Prescribers, Therapists, Patients, and Their Families. New York: Springer Pub. Co., 2013.

**For renewing your mind and finding out who you are in Christ please visit http://21daybraindetox.com and http://perfectlyyou.com. For my other products visit our online store: http://drleaf.com/store/

**For general information on the current state of psychiatry please visit http://www.madinamerica.com

**If you or someone you know is being threatened with drug treatment please visit http://psychrights.org

**To report any adverse psychotropic drug effects you have experienced, and for more detailed individual drug information, please visit https://www.rxisk.org

References

  1. Moncrieff, Joanna. “The Myth of the Chemical Cure: The Politics of Psychiatric Drug Treatment,” YouTube. March 8, 2013. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IV1S5zw096U ; Healy, David. "Serotonin and depression." BMJ 350 (2015): h1771; Whiatker, Robert. “Global Psychiatric Epidemic,” YouTube. October 23, 2012. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VgS79hz1saI ; Moncrieff, Joanna. “Why there’s no such thing as an ‘antidepressant’,” Joanna Moncrieff. November 27, 2013. Retrieved from http://joannamoncrieff.com/2013/11/27/why-theres-no-such-thing-as-an-antidepressant/; Lacasse, Jeffrey R., and Jonathan Leo. "Serotonin and depression: A disconnect between the advertisements and the scientific literature." PLoS medicine 2, no. 12 (2005): 1211; Moncrieff, Joanna, and David Cohen. "Rethinking models of psychotropic drug action." Psychotherapy and psychosomatics 74, no. 3 (2005): 145-153; Gøtzsche, Peter C. “Overdiagnosed & Overmedicated,” YouTube. February 11, 2015. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZMhsPnoIdy4 ; Gøtzsche, Peter C. Deadly Medicines and Organised Crime: How Big Pharma Has Corrupted Healthcare. London: Radcliffe Publishing, 2013; Arkowitz, Hal and Scott O. Lilienfield. “Is Depression Just Bad Chemistry?,” Scientific American, March 1, 2014. Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/is-depression-just-bad-chemistry/ ; Kresser, Chris. “The ‘chemical imbalance’ myth”, Chris Kresser. June 30, 2008. Retrieved from http://chriskresser.com/the-chemical-imbalance-myth/ ; Pies, Ronald W. “Psychiatry’s New Brain-Mind and the Legend of the “Chemical Imbalance,”” Psychiatric Times. July 11, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/blogs/couch-crisis/psychiatry-new-brain-mind-and-legend-chemical-imbalance#sthash.JUiXNvBm.dpuf; Spiegel, Alix. “When It Comes To Depression, Serotonin Isn't The Whole Story,” NPR. JANUARY 23, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2012/01/23/145525853/when-it-comes-to-depression-serotonin-isnt-the-whole-story; Moncrieff, Joanna. The Myth of the Chemical Cure: A Critique of Psychiatric Drug Treatment. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008; Moncrieff, Joanna. The Bitterest Pills: The Troubling Story of Antipsychotic Drugs. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013; Moncrieff, Joanna. "A critique of the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia and psychosis." Harvard review of psychiatry 17, no. 3 (2009): 214-225; Moncrieff, Joanna. "The Nature of Mental Disorder: Disease, Distress, or Personal Tendency?" Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 21, no. 3 (2014): 257-260; Moncrieff, Joanna, and Hugh Middleton. "Schizophrenia: a critical psychiatry perspective." Current Opinion in Psychiatry 28, no. 3 (2015): 264-268; Cohen, David, and Shannon Hughes. “How do people taking psychiatric drugs explain their “chemical imbalance?”” Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry 13, no. 3 (2011): 176-189; Lacasse, J.R., & Leo, J. “Challenging the narrative of chemical imbalance: A look at the evidence” In B. Probst (Ed.)., Critical Thinking in Clinical Diagnosis and Assessment. New York: Springer, 2015: 275-282; Kinderman, Peter, John Read, Joanna Moncrieff, and Richard P. Bentall. “Drop the language of disorder.” Evidence Based Mental Health 16, no. 1 (2013): 2-3; Gonon, François. “The Neuroscience Research Actually Supports Withdrawing Most Alleged Mental Disorders from Medicine,” International Society for Ethical Psychology and Psychiatry/University of California Los Angeles Conference. October 9, 2015. Retrieved from http://www.madinamerica.com/2015/10/videos-from-the-2014-transforming-mad-science-and-re-imagining-mental-health-care-iseppucla-conference/; Kinderman, Peter. “Why We Need to Abandon the Disease-Model of Mental Health Care,” Scientific American. November 17, 2014. Retrieved from http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/mind-guest-blog/why-we-need-to-abandon-the-disease-model-of-mental-health-care/; Whitaker, Robert. “Part 1: The Roots - Robert Whitaker - Psychiatric Epidemic - PsykoVision CPH - May 14, 2014.” YouTube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4R6MXO2j0V0; Goodkind, Madeleine, Simon B. Eickhoff, Desmond J. Oathes, Ying Jiang, Andrew Chang, Laura B. Jones-Hagata, Brissa N. Ortega et al. "Identification of a common neurobiological substrate for mental illness." JAMA psychiatry 72, no. 4 (2015): 305-315; Moncrieff, Joanna. “Madness, Drugs and Capitalism: An Exploration by Dr. Joanna Moncrieff.” SOAS. November 20, 2014. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ejkWxjdM-ig; Valenstein, Elliot S. Blaming the Brain: The Truth About Drugs and Mental Health. New York: Free Press, 1998; Pies, Ronald W. “Nuances, Narratives, and the “Chemical Imbalance” Debate,” Psychiatric Times. April 11, 2014. Retrieved from http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/couch-crisis/nuances-narratives-chemical-imbalance-debate#sthash.hGupm5Bo.dpuf; Angell, Marcia. The Truth About the Drug Companies: How They Deceive Us and What to Do About It. New York: Random House, 2004; Healy, David. Pharmageddon. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012; Kirsch, Irving. The Emperor's New Drugs: Exploding the Antidepressant Myth. New York: Basic Books, 2010; Whitaker, Robert. Anatomy of an Epidemic: Magic Bullets, Psychiatric Drugs, and the Astonishing Rise of Mental Illness in America. New York: Broadway Books, 2010; Bracken, Pat, Philip Thomas, Sami Timimi, Eia Asen, Graham Behr, Carl Beuster, Seth Bhunnoo et al. "Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm." The British Journal of Psychiatry 201, no. 6 (2012): 430-434; Gonon, Francois, Erwan Bezard, and Thomas Boraud. "Misrepresentation of neuroscience data might give rise to misleading conclusions in the media: The case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder." PLoS One 6, no. 1 (2011): e14618; Gonon, Francois. "The dopaminergic hypothesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder needs re-examining." Trends in neurosciences 32, no. 1 (2009): 2-8; Gonon, F., J. P. Konsman, D. Cohen, and T. Boraud. "Why most biomedical findings echoed by newspapers turn out to be false: the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder." PloS one 7, no. 9 (2011): e44275-e44275; Gonon, François. "La psychiatrie biologique: une bulle spéculative?." Esprit 11 (2011): 54-73; Bourdaa, Mélanie, Jan Pieter Konsman, Claire Sécail, Tommaso Venturini, Isabelle Veyrat-Masson, and Francois Gonon. "Does television reflect the evolution of scientific knowledge? The case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder coverage on French television." Public Understanding of Science 24, no. 2 (2015): 200-209; Frances, Allen. Saving Normal: An Insider's Revolt against Out-of-Control Psychiatric Diagnosis, DSM-5, Big Pharma, and the Medicalization of Ordinary Life. New York: William Morrow, 2014; Goldacre, Ben. Bad Pharma: How Drug Companies Mislead Doctors and Harm Patients. New York: Faber and Faber Inc., 2013. 
  2. Ibid.
  3. Moncrieff. “The Myth of the Chemical Cure: The Politics of Psychiatric Drug Treatment”; Moncrieff. The Myth of the Chemical Cure; Scull, Andrew. Madness in Civilization: A Cultural History of Insanity from the Bible to Freud, from the Madhouse to Modern Medicine. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015; Whitaker, Robert. Mad in America: Bad Science, Bad Medicine, and the Enduring Mistreatment of the Mentally Ill. New York: Basic Books, 2010; Moncrieff, Joanna. “Madness, Drugs and Capitalism”; Whitaker. “Part 1: The Roots”; Whitaker. Anatomy of an Epidemic; DeGrandpre, Richard J. The Cult of Pharmacology: How America Became the World's Most Troubled Drug Culture. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006; Moncrieff. The Bitterest Pills; Allison L. and Joanna Moncrieff. “’Rapid tranquilisation’: an historical perspective on its emergence in the context of the development of antipsychotic medications.” Hist. Psychiatry 25 (2014): 57-69.
  4. Ibid; Moncrieff, Joanna, David Cohen, and Sally Porter. “The Psychoactive Effects of Psychiatric Medication: The Elephant in the Room.” Journal of psychoactive drugs 45, no. 5 (2013): 409-415.
  5. Ibid; Gøtzsche. Deadly Medicines and Organised Crime; Gøtzsche. “Overdiagnosed & Overmedicated.”
  6. Ibid.
  7. Moncrieff. “The Myth of the Chemical Cure: The Politics of Psychiatric Drug Treatment”; Whiatker, “Global Psychiatric Epidemic”; Moncrieff, “Why there’s no such thing as an ‘antidepressant’”; Lacasse and Leo. "Serotonin and depression”; Moncrieff and Cohen. "Rethinking models of psychotropic drug action”; Gøtzsche, “Overdiagnosed & Overmedicated”; Gøtzsche, Deadly Medicines and Organised Crime; Arkowitz and Lilienfield. “Is Depression Just Bad Chemistry?”; Kresser, “The ‘chemical imbalance’ myth”; Pies, “Psychiatry’s New Brain-Mind and the Legend of the “Chemical Imbalance”; Spiegel, “When It Comes To Depression, Serotonin Isn't The Whole Story”; Moncrieff, The Myth of the Chemical Cure; Moncrieff, The Bitterest Pills; Moncrieff, "A critique of the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia and psychosis”; Moncrieff, “The Nature of Mental Disorder: Disease, Distress, or Personal Tendency?"; Moncrieff and Middleton. "Schizophrenia: a critical psychiatry perspective”; Cohen and Hughes. “How do people taking psychiatric drugs explain their “chemical imbalance?”; Lacasse, & Leo, “Challenging the narrative of chemical imbalance”; Kinderman, Read, Moncrieff, and Bentall. “Drop the language of disorder”; Gonon. “The Neuroscience Research Actually Supports Withdrawing Most Alleged Mental Disorders from Medicine”; Kinderman. “Why We Need to Abandon the Disease-Model of Mental Health Care”; Whitaker, “Part 1: The Roots”; Goodkind, Eickhoff, Oathes,  Jiang, Chang, Jones-Hagata, Ortega et al. "Identification of a common neurobiological substrate for mental illness”; Moncrieff, “Madness, Drugs and Capitalism”; Valenstein, Blaming the Brain; Pies,  “Nuances, Narratives, and the “Chemical Imbalance” Debate”; Angell, The Truth About the Drug Companies; Healy. Pharmageddon; Kirsch, The Emperor's New Drugs; Whitaker. Anatomy of an Epidemic; Bracken, Thomas, Timimi, Asen, Behr, Beuster, Bhunnoo et al. "Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm." Gonon, Bezard, and Boraud. "Misrepresentation of neuroscience data might give rise to misleading conclusions in the media”; Gonon,. "The dopaminergic hypothesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder needs re-examining”; Gonon, Konsman, Cohen, and Boraud. "Why most biomedical findings echoed by newspapers turn out to be false”; Gonon. "La psychiatrie biologique”; Bourdaa, Konsman, Sécail, Venturini, Veyrat-Masson, and Gonon. "Does television reflect the evolution of scientific knowledge?”; Frances, Saving Normal.
  8. Ibid.
  9. Moncrieff. “The Myth of the Chemical Cure: The Politics of Psychiatric Drug Treatment”; Moncrieff, The Myth of the Chemical Cure; Moncrieff, The Bitterest Pills; Cohen, David. “Self-Prescription and Self-Medication,” International Society for Ethical Psychology and Psychiatry/University of California Los Angeles Conference. October 9, 2015. Retrieved from http://www.madinamerica.com/2015/10/videos-from-the-2014-transforming-mad-science-and-re-imagining-mental-health-care-iseppucla-conference/.
  10. Whitaker, Robert. “The Barrier to Rethinking Psychiatry: The Guild Interests of the American Psychiatric Association,” International Society for Ethical Psychology and Psychiatry/University of California Los Angeles Conference. October 9, 2015. Retrieved from http://www.madinamerica.com/2015/10/videos-from-the-2014-transforming-mad-science-and-re-imagining-mental-health-care-iseppucla-conference/ ; Moncrieff. “The Myth of the Chemical Cure: The Politics of Psychiatric Drug Treatment”; Moncrieff, The Myth of the Chemical Cure; Moncrieff, The Bitterest Pills; Whitaker, Robert, and Lisa Cosgrove. Psychiatry Under the Influence Institutional Corruption, Social Injury, and Prescriptions for Reform. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015; Whitaker. Anatomy of an Epidemic; Whitaker, “Part 1: The Roots”; Gøtzsche, Deadly Medicines and Organised Crime; Whitaker. Mad in America; Bracken, Pat, and Philip Thomas. "From Szasz to Foucault: On the role of critical psychiatry." Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 17, no. 3 (2010): 219-228; DeGrandpre. The Cult of Pharmacology; Scull. Madness in Civilization; Frances, Saving Normal.
  11. Ibid; Greenberg, Gary. The Book of Woe: The DSM and the Unmaking of Psychiatry. New York: Blue Rider Press, 2013; Caplan, Paula J. They Say You're Crazy: How the World's Most Powerful Psychiatrists Decide Who's Normal. Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1995; Angell. The Truth About the Drug Companies; Hyman, Steven, “Psychiatric Drug Development: Diagnosing a Crisis,” The DANA Foundation Website. April 2, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.dana.org/Cerebrum/2013/Psychiatric_Drug_Development__Diagnosing_a_Crisis/; Bullock, Pam and Benedict Carey, “Psychiatry’s Guide is Out of Touch with Science, Experts say”, New York Times. May 6, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/07/health/psychiatrys-new-guide-falls-short-experts-say.html; Insel, Thomas, “Director’s Blog: Transforming Diagnosis”, National Institute of Mental Health, April 29, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/about/director/2013/transforming-diagnosis.shtml; Carlat, Daniel J. Unhinged: The Trouble with Psychiatry—a Doctor's Revelations About a Profession in Crisis. New York: Free Press, 2010, 9; Burstow, Bonnie. "A critique of posttraumatic stress disorder and the DSM." Journal of Humanistic Psychology 45, no. 4 (2005): 429-445.
  12. Ibid.
  13. Ibid; Delano, Laura. “Reclaiming Humanity: Building a Post-Psychiatry, Post-Mental Health World,” International Society for Ethical Psychology and Psychiatry/University of California Los Angeles Conference. October 9, 2015. Retrieved from http://www.madinamerica.com/2015/10/videos-from-the-2014-transforming-mad-science-and-re-imagining-mental-health-care-iseppucla-conference/.
  14. Ibid; Rapley, Mark, Joanna Moncrieff and Jaqui Dillon, eds. De-Medicalizing Misery: Psychiatry, Psychology and the Human Condition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011; Speed, Ewen, Joanna Moncrieff and Mark Rapley, eds. De-Medicalizing Misery: Psychiatry, Psychology and the Human Condition II. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
  15. Moncrieff. “The Myth of the Chemical Cure: The Politics of Psychiatric Drug Treatment”; Frances, Allen. “Finding a Middle Ground between Psychiatry and Antipsychiatry,” International Society for Ethical Psychology and Psychiatry/University of California Los Angeles Conference. October 9, 2015. Retrieved from http://www.madinamerica.com/2015/10/videos-from-the-2014-transforming-mad-science-and-re-imagining-mental-health-care-iseppucla-conference/; Breggin,  P.R. Toxic psychiatry. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1991; Breggin, P.R. Brain-Disabling treatments in psychiatry. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 1997; Moncrieff. “The Myth of the Chemical Cure: The Politics of Psychiatric Drug Treatment”; Moncrieff, The Myth of the Chemical Cure; Moncrieff, The Bitterest Pills; Whitfield, Charles L. "Psychiatric drugs as agents of trauma." International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine 22, no. 4 (2010): 195-207; Moncrieff J. “’Freedom is more important than health’: Thomas Szasz and the problem of paternalism.” International Psychiatry, 11 (2014): 46-48; Weitz, Don. “Struggling against psychiatry’s human rights violations–an antipsychiatry perspective.” Radical Psychology 7 (2008): 7-8; Moncrieff, Joanna. "Psychiatric diagnosis as a political device." Social Theory & Health 8, no. 4 (2010): 370-382; Whitaker. Anatomy of an Epidemic; Gøtzsche, Deadly Medicines and Organised Crime; Whitaker. Mad in America; Moncrieff, Joanna“Madness, Drugs and Capitalism: An Exploration by Dr. Joanna Moncrieff,” YouTube. November 20, 2014. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ejkWxjdM-igMcCubbin, M., & Cohen, D. (1998). Les droits des usagers de services en santé mentale: Le noeud étroit du pouvoir, de la loi et de l'éthique [the rights of mental health service users: the tight knot of power, law and ethics]. Santé mentale au Québec, 23, 212-224. English presentation to XXIVth International Congress on Law and Mental Health, Toronto, June 1999, available HTTP: http://www.oikos.org/mentalrights.htm; Poythress, N., Petrila, J., McGaha, A., & Boothroyd, R. “Perceived coercion and procedural justice in the Broward County Mental Health Court.” International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 25 (2002): 517-533; Szasz, Thomas. "Psychiatric diagnosis, psychiatric power and psychiatric abuse." Journal of medical ethics 20, no. 3 (1994): 135-138; LeFrancois, B.A. (2006). “They will find us and infect our bodies”: The views of adolescent inpatients taking psychiatric medication.  Radical Psychology, 5, Retrieved July 25, 2008 from http://www.radicalpsychology.org/vol5/LeFrancois.html; Weitz, D. Electroshocking elderly people: Another psychiatric abuse. Changes: An International Journal of Psychology and Psychotherapy, 15 (1997): 118-123; Weitz, D. Call me antipsychiatry activist -- not ‘consumer’. Ethical Human Sciences and Services, 5 (2002): 71-72.
  16. Ibid.
  17. Ibid.
  18. Ibid.
  19. Frances, “Finding a Middle Ground.”
  20. Moncrieff. “The Myth of the Chemical Cure: The Politics of Psychiatric Drug Treatment”; Whitaker, “Global Psychiatric Epidemic”; Moncrieff, “Why there’s no such thing as an ‘antidepressant’”; Lacasse and Leo. "Serotonin and depression”; Moncrieff and Cohen. "Rethinking models of psychotropic drug action”; Gøtzsche, “Overdiagnosed & Overmedicated”; Gøtzsche, Deadly Medicines and Organised Crime; Arkowitz and Lilienfield. “Is Depression Just Bad Chemistry?”; Kresser, “The ‘chemical imbalance’ myth”; Pies, “Psychiatry’s New Brain-Mind and the Legend of the “Chemical Imbalance”; Spiegel, “When It Comes To Depression, Serotonin Isn't The Whole Story”; Moncrieff, The Myth of the Chemical Cure; Moncrieff, The Bitterest Pills; Moncrieff, "A critique of the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia and psychosis”; Moncrieff, “The Nature of Mental Disorder: Disease, Distress, or Personal Tendency?"; Moncrieff and Middleton. "Schizophrenia: a critical psychiatry perspective”; Cohen and Hughes. “How do people taking psychiatric drugs explain their “chemical imbalance?”; Lacasse, & Leo, “Challenging the narrative of chemical imbalance”; Kinderman, Read, Moncrieff, and Bentall. “Drop the language of disorder”; Gonon. “The Neuroscience Research Actually Supports Withdrawing Most Alleged Mental Disorders from Medicine”; Kinderman. “Why We Need to Abandon the Disease-Model of Mental Health Care”; Whitaker, “Part 1: The Roots”; Goodkind, Eickhoff, Oathes,  Jiang, Chang, Jones-Hagata, Ortega et al. "Identification of a common neurobiological substrate for mental illness”; Moncrieff, “Madness, Drugs and Capitalism”; Valenstein, Blaming the Brain; Pies,  “Nuances, Narratives, and the “Chemical Imbalance” Debate”; Angell, The Truth About the Drug Companies; Healy. Pharmageddon; Kirsch, The Emperor's New Drugs; Whitaker. Anatomy of an Epidemic; Bracken, Thomas, Timimi, Asen, Behr, Beuster, Bhunnoo et al. "Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm." Gonon, Bezard, and Boraud. "Misrepresentation of neuroscience data might give rise to misleading conclusions in the media”; Gonon,. "The dopaminergic hypothesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder needs re-examining”; Gonon, Konsman, Cohen, and Boraud. "Why most biomedical findings echoed by newspapers turn out to be false”; Gonon. "La psychiatrie biologique”; Bourdaa, Konsman, Sécail, Venturini, Veyrat-Masson, and Gonon. "Does television reflect the evolution of scientific knowledge?”; Frances, Saving Normal.
  21. Ibid.
  22. Ibid.
  23. Ibid.
  24. For scientism and modern culture see: Sheldrake, Rupert. The Science Delusion: Freeing the Spirit of Enquiry. London: Coronet, 2013; Ward, Keith. The Big Questions in Science and Religion. West Conshohocken, Pa: Templeton Foundation Press, 2008; Lennox, John C. God and Stephen Hawking: Whose Design Is It Anyway? Oxford: Lion, 2010; Zacharias, Ravi K. The End of Reason: A Response to the New Atheists. Grand Rapids, Mich: Zondervan, 2008; McGrath, Alister E. Surprised by Meaning: Science, Faith, and How We Make Sense of Things. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2011; McGrath, Alister E. Science & Religion: A New Introduction. Chichester, West Sussex, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010; McGrath, Alister E. Why God Won't Go Away: Is the New Atheism Running on Empty? Nashville, Tenn: Thomas Nelson, 2010; Polkinghorne, J. C. Science and Religion in Quest of Truth. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011; Polkinghorne, J. C. Belief in God in an Age of Science. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1998; Polkinghorne, J. C. One World The Interaction of Science and Theology. Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press, 2007; Polkinghorne, J. C., and Nicholas Beale. Questions of Truth: Fifty-One Responses to Questions About God, Science, and Belief. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2009; Lennox, John C. Seven Days That Divide the World: The Beginning According to Genesis and Science. Grand Rapids, Mich: Zondervan, 2011; Aczel, Amir D. Why Science Does Not Disprove God. New York, NY: William Morrow, 2014; Newberg, Andrew B., Eugene G. D'Aquili, and Vince Rause. Why God Won't Go Away: Brain Science and the Biology of Belief. New York: Ballantine Books, 2001; McGrath, Alister E. Darwinism and the Divine: Evolutionary Thought and Natural Theology. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.
  25. Healy, David. “Time to abandon evidence based medicine?” YouTube. November 30, 2012. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A3YB59EKMKw; Healy, David, Derelie Mangin, and David Antonuccio. “Data based medicine and clinical judgement.” International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine 25 (2013): 111-121; ibid.
  26. Carlat, Unhinged; Carlat, Daniel. “Dr. Drug Rep.,” The New York Times. November 25, 2007. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/25/magazine/25memoir-t.html?pagewanted=all; Olsen, Gwen. Confessions of an Rx Drug Pusher. New York: iUniverse Star, 2009; Cohen, “Self-Prescription and Self-Medication”; Frances, “Finding a Middle Ground”; Moynihan, Ray, and Alan Cassels. Selling Sickness: How the World's Biggest Pharmaceutical Companies Are Turning Us All into Patients. New York: Greystone Books, 2005.
  27. Gonon, Bezard, and Boraud. "Misrepresentation of neuroscience data might give rise to misleading conclusions in the media”; Gonon,. "The dopaminergic hypothesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder needs re-examining”; Gonon, Konsman, Cohen, and Boraud. "Why most biomedical findings echoed by newspapers turn out to be false”; Gonon. "La psychiatrie biologique”; Bourdaa, Konsman, Sécail, Venturini, Veyrat-Masson, and Gonon. "Does television reflect the evolution of scientific knowledge?”; Gøtzsche, Peter C. “Why Few Patients Benefit and Many are Harmed,” Council For Evidence-Based Psychiatry. September 30, 2015. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_9cfjKOmPF8; Moncrieff. “The Myth of the Chemical Cure: The Politics of Psychiatric Drug Treatment”; Whiatker, “Global Psychiatric Epidemic”; Moncrieff, “Why there’s no such thing as an ‘antidepressant’”; Lacasse and Leo. "Serotonin and depression”; Moncrieff and Cohen. "Rethinking models of psychotropic drug action”; Gøtzsche, “Overdiagnosed & Overmedicated”; Gøtzsche, Deadly Medicines and Organised Crime; Arkowitz and Lilienfield. “Is Depression Just Bad Chemistry?”; Kresser, “The ‘chemical imbalance’ myth”; Pies, “Psychiatry’s New Brain-Mind and the Legend of the “Chemical Imbalance”; Spiegel, “When It Comes To Depression, Serotonin Isn't The Whole Story”; Moncrieff, The Myth of the Chemical Cure; Moncrieff, The Bitterest Pills; Moncrieff, "A critique of the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia and psychosis”; Moncrieff, “The Nature of Mental Disorder: Disease, Distress, or Personal Tendency?"; Moncrieff and Middleton. "Schizophrenia: a critical psychiatry perspective”; Cohen and Hughes. “How do people taking psychiatric drugs explain their “chemical imbalance?”; Lacasse, & Leo, “Challenging the narrative of chemical imbalance”; Kinderman, Read, Moncrieff, and Bentall. “Drop the language of disorder”; Gonon. “The Neuroscience Research Actually Supports Withdrawing Most Alleged Mental Disorders from Medicine”; Kinderman. “Why We Need to Abandon the Disease-Model of Mental Health Care”; Whitaker, “Part 1: The Roots”; Goodkind, Eickhoff, Oathes,  Jiang, Chang, Jones-Hagata, Ortega et al. "Identification of a common neurobiological substrate for mental illness”; Moncrieff, “Madness, Drugs and Capitalism”; Valenstein, Blaming the Brain; Pies,  “Nuances, Narratives, and the “Chemical Imbalance” Debate”; Angell, The Truth About the Drug Companies; Healy. Pharmageddon; Kirsch, The Emperor's New Drugs; Whitaker. Anatomy of an Epidemic; Bracken, Thomas, Timimi, Asen, Behr, Beuster, Bhunnoo et al. "Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm”; Frances, Saving Normal.
  28. Ibid.
  29. Ibid.
  30. Ibid.
  31. Ibid.
  32. Ibid; Delano, “Reclaiming Humanity.”
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  41. Ibid.
  42. Ibid.
  43. Healy, David, Andrew Herxheimer, and David B. Menkes. "Antidepressants and violence: problems at the interface of medicine and law." PLoS Med 3, no. 9 (2006): e372; Breggin, "Suicidality, violence, and mania”; Marks, Donald H., Peter R. Breggin, and Derek Braslow. "Homicidal ideation causally related to therapeutic medications." Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry 10, no. 3 (2008): 134-145; Moore, Thomas J., Joseph Glenmullen, and Curt D. Furberg. "Prescription drugs associated with reports of violence towards others." PLoS One 5, no. Breggin, "Court filing makes public my previously suppressed analysis of Paxil's effects”; “Murder, suicide. A bitter aftertaste for the ‘wonder’ depression drug.” Guardian. June 11, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2001/jun/11/highereducation.medicalscience;   Gøtzsche, “Overdiagnosed & Overmedicated”; Gøtzsche, Deadly Medicines and Organised Crime; Breggin, Medication MadnessFDA. “Antidepressant use in children, adolescents, and adults”; Healy, Pharmageddon; Moncrieff, The Myth of the Chemical Cure; Moncrieff, The Bitterest Pills; Moncrieff. “The Myth of the Chemical Cure: The Politics of Psychiatric Drug Treatment”; “SSRI Stories: Antidepressant Nightmares.” Retrieved from http:// ssristories.org/.
  44. Hill, Keith D., and Rohan Wee. "Psychotropic drug-induced falls in older people." Drugs & aging 29, no. 1 (2012): 15-30; Gøtzsche, “Overdiagnosed & Overmedicated”; Gøtzsche, Deadly Medicines and Organised Crime; Breggin, Medication Madness; Huang, Allen R., Louise Mallet, Christian M. Rochefort, Tewodros Eguale, David L. Buckeridge, and Robyn Tamblyn. "Medication-related falls in the elderly." Drugs & aging 29, no. 5 (2012): 359-376; Berdot, Sarah, Marion Bertrand, Jean-François Dartigues, Annie Fourrier, Béatrice Tavernier, Karen Ritchie, and Annick Alpérovitch. "Inappropriate medication use and risk of falls–a prospective study in a large community-dwelling elderly cohort." BMC geriatrics 9, no. 1 (2009): 30; Whitaker, Anatomy of an Epidemic; Whitaker, Robert. “Part 4: Children & ADHD - Robert Whitaker - Psychiatric Epidemic,” YouTube. May 14, 2014. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gigZD4RIXhg; Breggin, Peter R. "Psychostimulants in the treatment of children diagnosed with ADHD: Risks and mechanism of action." International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine 12, no. 1 (1999): 3-35.
  45. Goldacre, Bad Pharma; Kirsch, Irving. The Emperor's New Drugs: Exploding the Antidepressant Myth. New York: Basic Books, 2010; Gøtzsche, “Overdiagnosed & Overmedicated”; Gøtzsche, Deadly Medicines and Organised Crime; Colloca, Luana, Wayne B. Jonas, John Killen Jr, Franklin G. Miller, and David Shurtleff. "Reevaluating the placebo effect in medical practice." Z Psychol 222, no. 3 (2014): 124-127; Benson, Herbert, and Mark D. Epstein. "The placebo effect: A neglected asset in the care of patients." Jama 232, no. 12 (1975): 1225-1227; Colloca, Luana, and Franklin G. Miller. "Harnessing the placebo effect: the need for translational research." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 366, no. 1572 (2011): 1922-1930; Benedetti, Fabrizio. "Placebo-induced improvements: how therapeutic rituals affect the patient's brain." Journal of acupuncture and meridian studies 5, no. 3 (2012): 97-103; Benedetti, Fabrizio, Elisa Carlino, and Antonella Pollo. "How placebos change the patient's brain." Neuropsychopharmacology 36, no. 1 (2011): 339-354; Carlino, Elisa, Antonella Pollo, and Fabrizio Benedetti. "The placebo in practice: how to use it in clinical routine." Current opinion in supportive and palliative care 6, no. 2 (2012): 220-225; Benedetti, Fabrizio. The patient's brain: the neuroscience behind the doctor-patient relationship. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
  46. Goldacre, Bad Pharma; Kirsch, The Emperor's New Drugs; Gøtzsche, “Overdiagnosed & Overmedicated”; Gøtzsche, Deadly Medicines and Organised Crime; Gibbons, Robert D., Kwan Hur, C. Hendricks Brown, John M. Davis, and J. John Mann. "Benefits from antidepressants: synthesis of 6-week patient-level outcomes from double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trials of fluoxetine and venlafaxine." Archives of general psychiatry 69, no. 6 (2012): 572-579; Moncrieff, Joanna, Simon Wessely, and Rebecca Hardy. "Active placebos versus antidepressants for depression." The Cochrane Library (2004); Kirsch, Irving, Thomas J. Moore, Alan Scoboria, and Sarah S. Nicholls. "The emperor's new drugs: an analysis of antidepressant medication data submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration." Prevention & Treatment 5, no. 1 (2002): 23a; Arnone, D., S. McKie, R. Elliott, G. Juhasz, E. J. Thomas, D. Downey, S. Williams, J. F. W. Deakin, and I. M. Anderson. "State-dependent changes in hippocampal grey matter in depression." Molecular psychiatry 18, no. 12 (2013): 1265-1272; Moncrieff, The Myth of the Chemical Cure; Moncrieff, The Bitterest Pills; Moncrieff. “The Myth of the Chemical Cure: The Politics of Psychiatric Drug Treatment”.
  47. Ibid; Breggin, Peter Roger. Psychiatric Drug Withdrawal A Guide for Prescribers, Therapists, Patients, and Their Families. New York: Springer Pub. Co, 2013; Breggin, Peter Roger. Toxic Psychiatry: Why Therapy, Empathy, and Love Must Replace the Drugs, Electroshock, and Biochemical Theories of the "New Psychiatry". New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991.
  48. Ibid.
  49. Kirsch, The Emperor's New Drugs; Kirsch, Moore, Scoboria, and Nicholls. "The emperor's new drugs”; Moncrieff, Wessely, and Hardy. "Active placebos versus antidepressants for depression”; Kirsch, I., et al. “Initial severity and antidepressant benefits: A meta-analysis of data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration.” PLoS Med 5.2 (2008): e45; Abi-Jaoude, Elia. “Are SSRI Antidepressants Little More than Active Placebo? A Critical Exploration.” The Journal of Mind–Body Regulation 1, no. 2 (2011): 100-105.
  50. Lynch, Terry, Depression Delusion: Volume One, The Myth of the Brain Chemical Imbalance. Limerick, Ireland : Mental Health Publishing, 2015.
  51. Moncrieff. “The Myth of the Chemical Cure: The Politics of Psychiatric Drug Treatment”; Moncrieff. The Myth of the Chemical Cure; Scull, Andrew. Madness in Civilization: A Cultural History of Insanity from the Bible to Freud, from the Madhouse to Modern Medicine. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015; Whitaker, Robert. Mad in America: Bad Science, Bad Medicine, and the Enduring Mistreatment of the Mentally Ill. New York: Basic Books, 2010; Moncrieff, Joanna. “Madness, Drugs and Capitalism”; Whitaker. “Part 1: The Roots”; Whitaker. Anatomy of an Epidemic; DeGrandpre, Richard J. The Cult of Pharmacology: How America Became the World's Most Troubled Drug Culture. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006; Moncrieff. The Bitterest Pills; Allison L. and Joanna Moncrieff. “’Rapid tranquilisation’: an historical perspective on its emergence in the context of the development of antipsychotic medications.” Hist. Psychiatry 25 (2014): 57-69; Moncrieff, Joanna, David Cohen, and Sally Porter. “The Psychoactive Effects of Psychiatric Medication: The Elephant in the Room.” Journal of psychoactive drugs 45, no. 5 (2013): 409-415.
  52. Moncrieff. “The Myth of the Chemical Cure: The Politics of Psychiatric Drug Treatment”; Whitaker, “Global Psychiatric Epidemic”; Moncrieff, “Why there’s no such thing as an ‘antidepressant’”; Lacasse and Leo. "Serotonin and depression”; Moncrieff and Cohen. "Rethinking models of psychotropic drug action”; Gøtzsche, “Overdiagnosed & Overmedicated”; Gøtzsche, Deadly Medicines and Organised Crime; Moncrieff, The Myth of the Chemical Cure; Moncrieff, The Bitterest Pills; Moncrieff, "A critique of the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia and psychosis”; Moncrieff, “The Nature of Mental Disorder: Disease, Distress, or Personal Tendency?"; Moncrieff and Middleton. "Schizophrenia: a critical psychiatry perspective”; Breggin, Medication Madness; Kinderman. “Why We Need to Abandon the Disease-Model of Mental Health Care”; Whitaker, “Part 1: The Roots”; Angell, The Truth About the Drug Companies; Healy. Pharmageddon; Kirsch, The Emperor's New Drugs; Whitaker. Anatomy of an Epidemic; Bracken, Thomas, Timimi, Asen, Behr, Beuster, Bhunnoo et al. "Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm”; Frances, Saving Normal; Frances, “Finding a Middle Ground”; Breggin, Toxic Psychiatry; Breggin, Brain-Disabling Treatments; Breggin, Peter R. Psychiatric Drug Withdrawal A Guide for Prescribers, Therapists, Patients, and Their Families. New York: Springer Pub. Co., 2013.
  53. Ibid.
  54. Ibid.
  55. Ibid.
  56. Ibid.
  57. Frances, “Finding a Middle Ground”.
  58. Moncrieff, Joanna. “Madness, Drugs and Capitalism: An Exploration by Dr. Joanna Moncrieff.” SOAS. November 20, 2014. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ejkWxjdM-ig.\; Moncrieff, Joanna. "Psychiatric drug promotion and the politics of neoliberalism." The British Journal of Psychiatry 188, no. 4 (2006): 301-302; ; Moncrieff, The Myth of the Chemical Cure; Moncrieff, The Bitterest Pills; Moncrieff, “’Freedom is more important than health’”; Szasz, "Psychiatric diagnosis, psychiatric power and psychiatric abuse”; Weitz,“Struggling against psychiatry’s human rights violations”; Moncrieff, “Psychiatric diagnosis as a political device”; Moncrieff. “The Myth of the Chemical Cure: The Politics of Psychiatric Drug Treatment”; Whitaker, “Global Psychiatric Epidemic”; Gøtzsche, Deadly Medicines and Organised Crime; Moncrieff, Joanna, and Sami Timimi. "The social and cultural construction of psychiatric knowledge: an analysis of NICE guidelines on depression and ADHD." Anthropology & medicine 20, no. 1 (2013): 59-71; Bracken, Pat. "Psychiatric power: a personal view." Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine 29, no. 01 (2012): 55-58; Timimi, Sami. "The McDonaldization of childhood: Children’s mental health in neo-liberal market cultures." Transcultural Psychiatry 47, no. 5 (2010): 686-706; Timimi, Sami. Children's mental health in the era of globalisation: Neo-liberalism, commodification, McDonaldisation, and the new challenges they pose. INTECH Open Access Publisher, 2012; Whitaker, “The Barrier to Rethinking Psychiatry”; Whitaker, Anatomy of an Epidemic.
  59. Ibid.
  60. Ibid.
  61. Ibid.
  62. Ibid.
  63. Ibid; Vastig, Brian. “Pay Attention: Ritalin Acts Much Like Cocaine,” JAMA, 286 (2001): 905.
  64. Ibid.
  65. Dr. Caroline Leaf. “Ridiculous.” TEDx. March 16, 2015. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/yjhANyrKpv8; Leaf, Caroline. Switch on Your Brain. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2013.
  66. Ibid.
  67. Wright, N.T. Evil and the Justice of God. Downers Grove, Ill: IVP Books, 2006; Wright, N.T. Surprised by Scripture: Engaging Contemporary Issues. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2014; Wright, N. T. Simply Christian: Why Christianity Makes Sense. San Francisco, Calif.: HarperSanFrancisco, 2006; Wright, N. T. Surprised by Hope: Rethinking Heaven, the Resurrection, and the Mission of the Church. New York: HarperOne, 2008.
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